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Roman Historical Timelines

Year Domestic Events External Events
753 BC Legendary date for the foundation of Rome  
575 BC Approximate date for the unification of Rome into a city  
510 BC Traditional date of the explusion of Tarquin and establishment of the Republic Probable date of the first treaty between Rome and Carthage
508 BC Traditional date of the Etruscan invasion under Lars Porsena  
494 BC Traditional date of the First Secession of the Plebeians  
493 BC   First treaty between Rome and the Latins, drawn up by Sp. Cassius
474 BC   Defeat of the Etruscans by Syracuse
450 BC The Twelve Tables  
390 BC Conquest of Rome by the Gauls  
367 BC Licinian Laws: (1) forbid large holdings of public land; (2) enact that one consul shall be a plebeian  
351 BC   Conquest of South Etruria by Rome. Caere becomes the first ciuitas sine suffragio
348 BC   Treaty of commerce between Rome and Carthage
343 BC to 266 BC   Samnite wars, involving subjugation of the Latins and eventually of all Central Italy
321 BC   Great defeat of the Romans at the Claudine Pass
312 BC Censorship of Appius Claudius including construction of Via Appia  
281 to 275 BC   War with Tarentum with Pyrrhus involving conquest of South Italy
268 BC First coinage of silver  
264 to 241 BC   First Punic War, involving conquest of Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica -- first transmarine provinces
264 BC First gladiatorial games at Rome  
240 BC Livius Andronicus. Beginning of Roman literature  
222 BC   Defeat of the Cisalpine Gauls
220 BC Via Flaminia to Ariminum  
218 to 201 BC   Second Punic War
218 BC Lex Claudia forbids Senators to engage in commerce  
216 BC   Roman severly defeated at Cannae
205 BC Introduction of Phrygian worship of Magna Mater  
202 BC   Victory of Scipio at Zama
201 BC   Peace with Carthage involving cession of Spain
200 to 194 BC   Second Macedonian War
196 BC   Flamininus proclaims the liberty of Greece
190 BC   Defeat of Antiochus the Great of Syria at Magnesia
186 BC The Bacchanalian "conspiracy"  
184 BC Censorship of Cato the Elder. Death of Plautus. Basilica of Cato constructed.  
171 to 168 BC   Third Macedonian War
167 BC 1000 Greeks, including Polybius the historian brought to Italy as hostages  
161 BC Greek orators and philosophers expelled (vainly)  
160 BC Adelphi of Terence performed  
148 BC   Macedonia becomes a province
146 BC   On destruction of Carthage, Africa becomes a province
146 BC Great influx of Greek Art Corinth destroyed
133 BC Tribunate and agrarian programme of Tiberius Grachus Kingdom of Attalus bequeathed to Rome, becomes province of Asia
123 BC Tribunate and agrarian programme of Tiberius Gracchus. Establishment of the Equites as a political power  
121 BC   Province of Gallia Narbonensis, formed by conquest of South Gaul
112 to 106 BC   War with Jugurtha; triumph of Marius
113 to 101 BC Army reforms and political power of Marius War with Cimbri and Teutons
96 BC   Cyrene bequeathed to Rome
91 BC   War against the Italian allies (Social War)
88 BC Conquest of Rome by Sulla, and restoration of the Senate War with Mithridates of Pontus. Massacre of Romans
87 BC Revolution of Cinna and Marius with great massacre of nobles  
82 BC Return of Sulla and proscription of the democrats Defeat of the Samnites at the Colline Gate of Rome
81 BC Sulla dicator. Cornelian Laws improve the judical system. Cicero's first speech Cisalpine Gaul becomes a province
74 BC   Bithynia bequeathed to Rome
73 BC Insurrection of slaves under Spartacus  
67 BC   Pompey defeats pirates
63 BC Consulship of Cicero, who crushes the conspiracy of Catiline Pompey ends the Mithridatic War. New provinces organized: Cilicia, Bithynia with Pontus, Syria, and Crete
60 BC Union of Pompey, Caesar and Crassus, the "First Triumvirate"  
59 BC Consulship of Caesar, and grant of the province of Gaul  
58 BC Bansihment of Cicero Caesar defeats the Helvetians
57 BC Recall of Cicero Caesar defeats the Nervii
56 BC Renewal of the "Triumvirate" at Lucca Caesar defeats the Veneti by sea
55 BC Dedication of Theatre of Pompey Caesar invades Britain
54 BC   Second invasion of Britain
53 BC   Defeat of Crassus by the Parthians. Caesar subdues the Treveri and crosses the Rhine
52 BC Senate-house burnt in a riot. Pompey passes laws against Caesar Great revolt of Gaul under Vercingetorix crushed at Alesia
51 BC   Final subjugation of Gaul. Cicero governor of Cilicia
49 BC Caesar begins Civil War  
48 BC Battle of Pharsalus, defeat of Pompey Caesar regulates Egypt, leaving Cleopatra as queen
46 BC Final defeat of Pompey's sons at Thapsus in Africa. Caesar dicator. Dedication of new Forum Julium, and Temple of Venus Genetrix  
45 BC Caesar enlarges the senate and regulates the municipal constitutions of the Italian towns  
44 BC Assassination of Caesar. M. Antonius in command of Rome. Cicero's Philippics  
43 BC Octavian, Caesar's heir, with the consuls defeat Antony at Mutina and is elected consul. "Second Triumvirate" formed, Antony, Octavian and Lepidus. Proscription of the tyrannicide party, including Cicero  
42 BC Battle of Philippi. Defeat of Brutus and Cassius. Temple of Saturn rebuilt  
41 BC War at Perusia, in which Octavian crushes the revolt of L. Antonius M Antonius with Cleopatra in Egypt
37 BC Library of Polloi founded. Octavian marries Livia  
36 BC Sextus Pompey defeated. Lepidus deprived of his land army Antony defeated in Parthia
31 BC   Defeat of Antony and Cleopatra at Actium by Octavian
29 BC Triumph of Caesar Octavianus Conquest of Egypt
28 BC Census and restoration of senate. Dedication of temple and library of Palatine Apollo; eighty-two temples restored Moesia made a province
27 BC "Restoration of the Republic", really the beginning of the Empire. Octavian receives the tile of Augustus. Pantheon of M. Agrippa built Provinces divided between Augustus and senate. Augustus takes Spain, Gual, Syria and keeps Egypt

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